Named after its inventor, Edwin Hall, in 1879, Hall Effect metrology is a very fast and effective way obtaining material characteristics for research and development. The Hall effect is basically the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the conductor and a magnetic field perpendicular to the current.
The Hall coefficient is defined as the ratio of the induced electric field to the product of the current density and the applied magnetic field. It is a characteristic of the material from which the conductor is made, since its value depends on the type, number, and properties of the charge carriers that constitute the current. Using Hall Effect measurement, the following properties can be determined:
Bulk/Sheet carrier concentration
Vertical/Horizontal ratio of resistance
Shubnikow-de Haas Oscillations (SdH)