Nanometrics

Hall Effect Measurement

Named after its inventor, Edwin Hall, in 1879, Hall Effect metrology is a very fast and effective way obtaining material characteristics for research and development. The Hall effect is basically the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the conductor and a magnetic field perpendicular to the current.

 

Hall Effect

 

The Hall coefficient is defined as the ratio of the induced electric field to the product of the current density and the applied magnetic field. It is a characteristic of the material from which the conductor is made, since its value depends on the type, number, and properties of the charge carriers that constitute the current. Using Hall Effect measurement, the following properties can be determined:

Resistivity/Conductivity

Mobility

Bulk/Sheet carrier concentration

Doping type

Hall coefficient

Magnetoresistance

Vertical/Horizontal ratio of resistance

Shubnikow-de Haas Oscillations (SdH)